Incest sex

Incest is sexual intercourse between close relatives[1][2] that is illegal in the jurisdiction where it takes place and/or is socially taboo. The type of sexual activity and the nature of the relationship between people that constitutes a breach of law or social taboo vary with culture and jurisdiction. Some societies consider incest to include only those who live in the same household, or who belong to the same clan or lineage; other societies consider it to include "blood relatives"; other societies further include those related by adoption or marriage.[3]

Incest between adults and those under the age of majority or age of consent is considered a form of child sexual abuse[4][5] that has been shown to be one of the most extreme forms of childhood abuse, often resulting in serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest.[6] Prevalence is difficult to generalize, but research has estimated 10–15% of the general population as having at least one such sexual contact, with less than 2% involving intercourse or attempted intercourse.[7] Among women, research has yielded estimates as high as twenty percent.[6]

Father-daughter incest was for many years the most commonly reported and studied form of incest.[8] More recently, studies have suggested that sibling incest, particularly older brothers abusing younger siblings, is the most common form of incest,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] with some studies finding sibling incest occurring orders of magnitude[not in citation given (See discussion.)] more frequently than other forms of incest.[18] Some studies suggest that adolescent perpetrators of sibling abuse choose younger victims, abuse victims over a lengthier period, use violence more frequently and severely than adult perpetrators,[19] and that sibling abuse has a higher rate of penetrative acts than father or stepfather incest, with father and older brother incest resulting in greater reported distress than stepfather incest.[20][21][22]

Consensual adult incest is equally a crime in most countries,[23][not in citation given] although it is seen by some as a victimless crime,[24][25] and thus it is rarely reported.[citation needed] Others argue that the increased mortality of babies from heterosexual incestuous couples is enough to criminalize the act.[26]

Most societies have prohibitions against incest.[27][28] The incest taboo is and has been one of the most common of all cultural taboos, both in current nations and many past societies,[29] with legal penalties imposed in some jurisdictions. Most modern societies have legal or social restrictions on closely consanguineous marriages.[30]

References

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  1. ^ "Incest" in Merriam-Webster's Dictionary
  2. ^ Incest Law & Legal Definition
  3. ^ Elementary Structures Of Kinship, by Claude Lévi-Strauss. (tr.1971).
  4. ^ Kathleen C. Faller (1993). Child Sexual Abuse: Intervention and Treatment Issues. DIANE Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 9780788116698.
  5. ^ Diane H. Schetky; Arthur H. Green (1988). Child Sexual Abuse: A Handbook for Health Care and Legal Professionals. Psychology Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780876304952.
  6. ^ a b c Courtois, Christine A. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 208. ISBN 0393313565.
  7. ^ Nemeroff, Charles B.; Craighead, W. Edward (2001). The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-24096-6.
  8. ^ Herman, Judith (1981). Father-Daughter Incest. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 282. ISBN 0-674-29506-4.
  9. ^ Goldman, R., & Goldman, J. (1988). The prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in Australia. Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage and Family, 9(2), 94-106.
  10. ^ Wiehe, Vernon. (1997). Sibling Abuse: Hidden Physical, Emotional, and Sexual Trauma. Sage Publications, ISBN 0-7619-1009-3
  11. ^ Rayment-McHugh, Sue and Ian Nesbit. 2003. Sibling Incest Offenders As A Subset of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Paper presented at the Child Sexual Abuse: Justice Response or Alternative Resolution Conference convened by the Australian Institute of Criminology and held in Adelaide, 1–2 May 2003
  12. ^ Canavan, M. C.; Meyer, W. J.; Higgs, D. C. (1992). "The female experience of sibling incest". Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 18 (2): 129–142.
  13. ^ Smith, H., & Israel, E. (1987). Sibling incest: A study of the dynamics of 25 cases. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, pp. 101–108.
  14. ^ Cole, E. (1982). Sibling incest: The myth of benign sibling incest. Women and Therapy, 1(3), pp.79–89.
  15. ^ Cawson, P., Wattam, C., Brooker, S., & Kelly, G. (2000). Child maltreatment in the United Kingdom: A study of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect. London: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.
  16. ^ Sibling incest is roughly five times as common as other forms of incest according to Gebhard, P., Gagnon, J., Pomeroy, W., & Christenson, C. (1965). Sex offenders: An analysis of types. New York: Harper & Row.
  17. ^ Finkelhor, David (1981). Sexually victimized children. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0029104009.
  18. ^ A large-scale study of (n = 3,000) by the UK's National Council for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children found that fathers committed about 1% of child sex abuse, while siblings committed 14%. See BBC News Online: Health, Child Abuse Myths Shattered, November, 20, 2000
  19. ^ O'Brien, M. J. (1991). Taking sibling incest seriously. In M. Patton (ed.), Family sexual abuse: Frontline research and evaluation (75–92). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  20. ^ O'Brien (1991)
  21. ^ Laviola, M. (1992). Effects of older brother-younger sister incest: A study of the dynamics of 17 cases. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, pp. 409–421.
  22. ^ Cyr, M., Wright, J., McDuff, P., & Perron, A. (2002). Intrafamilial sexual abuse: Brother-sister incest does not differ from father-daughter and stepfather-stepdaughter incest. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, pp. 957–973
  23. ^ Jeff Jacoby (August 28, 2005). "Hypocrisy on adult consent". The Boston Globe.
  24. ^ a b c d Hipp, Dietmar (2008-03-11). "German High Court Takes a Look at Incest". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
  25. ^ Wolf, Arthur P.; William H. Durham (2004). Inbreeding, Incest, and the Incest Taboo: The State of Knowledge at the Turn of the Century. Stanford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 0804751412.
  26. ^ Khan, Razib. "Ph. D". Unz Foundation Junior Fellow. Discover. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  27. ^ Brown, Donald E., Human Universals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991, p. 118-29
  28. ^ a b c d e Turner, Jeffrey S. (1996). Encyclopedia of Relationships Across the Lifespan. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 92. ISBN 031329576X.
  29. ^ Incest: The Nature and Origin of the Taboo, by Emile Durkheim (tr.1963)
  30. ^ Kinship, Incest, and the Dictates of Law, by Henry A. Kelly, 14 Am. J. Juris. 69